The following books and articles were critical to my final research paper. Most of these were cited in my project, while others provided inspiration and guidance.

Alvermann, D. E. (2008). Why bother theorizing adolescents’ online literacies for classroom practice and research? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(1), p. 8-19.

Amato, C.H., Peters, C.L.O. & Shao, A.T. (2005). An exploratory investigation into NASCAR fan culture. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14(2), p. 71-83.

Ariely, D (2008). Predictably Irrational: The hidden forces that shape our decisions. Harper Collins: USA.

Baerg, A. “It’s (Not) in the Game”: The quest for quantitative realism and the Madden football fan. In L.W. Hugenberg, P.M. Haridakis & A.C. Earnheardt (Eds.), Sports Mania: essays on fandom and the media in the 21st century (p. 218-228). London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.

Banks, J. (2009). Co-creative expertise: Auran games and fury-a case study. Media International Australia: Incorporating Culture and Policy, 130(February), p. 77-89.

Benkler, Y. (2011). The Penguin and the Leviathan: The Triumph of Co-operation over Self-Interest. New York: Crown Business

Berg, K.A. & Harthcock, A. (2008). “Let the Domination Begin”: Sports fans’ construction of identity in online message boards. In L.W. Hugenberg, P.M. Haridakis & A.C. Earnheardt (Eds.), Sports Mania: essays on fandom and the media in the 21st century (p. 203-217). London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.

Boyle, R. (2004). Mobile communication and the sports industry: The case of 3G. Trends in Communication, 12(2), p. 73-82.

Bruns, A. & Jacobs, J. (Eds.). (2006). Uses of Blogs. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Bruns, A. (2009). Beyond Toffler, beyond the prosumer. Retrieved from

Burgess, J. (2006). Blogging to learn, learning to blog. In A. Bruns & J. Jacobs (Eds.), Uses of Blogs (p. 105-114). New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Cialdini, R.B., Borden, R.J., Thorne, A., Walker, M.R., Freeman, S. and Sloan, L.R.. (1976). Basking in reflected glory: three (football) field studies.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,34(3),p. 366-375.

Cleland, J. (2010). From passive to active: the changing relationship between supporters and football clubs. Soccer & Society, 11(5), p. 537-552.

Courtney, J.J. & Wann, D.L. (2010). The relationship between sports fan dysfunction and bullying behaviours. North American Journal of Psychology, 12(1), p. 191-198.

Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Dart, J. J. (2009). Blogging the 2006 FIFA World Cup Finals. Sociology of Sport Journal, 26(1), p. 107-126.

Degli Esposti, P. (2009). Consumer 2.0, participation or exploitation? Journal of Sociocybernetics, 7 (S), p.121-130.

Dryden, K. (1973). Face-off at the summit. Toronto: Little Brown.

Dryden, K. (1983). The Game. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons.

Ferriter, M.M. (2009). “Arguably the greatest“: Sports fans and communities at work on Wikipedia. Sociology of Sport Journal, 26(1), p. 127-154.

Gantz, W., Wang, Z., Paul, B. & Potter, R.F. (2006). Sports versus all comers: comparing TV sports fans with fans of other programming genres. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50(1), p. 95-118.

Gruneau, R. & Whitson, D. (1994). Hockey Night in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Halverson E.R. & Halverson R. (2008). Fantasy baseball: The case for competitive fandom. Games and Culture, 3(3/4), p. 286-308.

Hutchins B. & Rowe D. (2009). From broadcast scarcity to digital plenitude: The changing dynamics of the media sport content economy. Television and New Media, 10(4), p. 354-370.

Jenkins, H. (2004). The cultural logic of media convergence. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1), p. 33-43.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York University Press.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Fans, Bloggers and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture. New York: New York University Press.

Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushatma, R., Robison, A., and Weigel, M. (2007). Confronting the challenges of a participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. Nordic Journal of Media Literacy.

Johnson, C. (2012). The Information Diet: A Case for Concious Consumption. USA: O’Reilly Media.

Joyce, G. (2008). Future Great and Heartbreaks: A Year Undercover in the Secret World of NHL Scouts. Canada: Anchor.

King, D. and Duhatschek, E. (2008). King of Russia: A Year in the Russian Super League. Canada: McClelland & Stewart.

Lake, D. A., Reece, B. B., & Rifon, N. J. (2010). Sports team athletes as product endorsers: The moderating role of fan team commitment on the effects of negative publicity. American Academy of Advertising Conference Proceedings, p. 30-32.

Lessig, L. (2008). Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. New York: Penguin Press.

Levy, P. (1997). Collective Intelligence: Mankind’s Emerging World in Cyberspace. Massachusetts: Perseus Books.

Lewis, L.A. (ed). (1992). The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media. London: Routledge.

Lewis, M. (2004). Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Lowe, K. and Fischler, S. (1988). Champions: The making of the Edmonton Oilers. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall.

Lowood, H. (2006). High-performance play: The making of machinima. Journal of Media Practice, 7(1), p. 25–42.

Marshall, P. D., Walker, B., & Russo, N. (2010). Mediating the Olympics. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 16(3), p. 263-278.

Martens, M. (2011). Transmedia teens:  Affect, immaterial labor, and user-generated content. Convergence: The Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 17(1), p. 49-68.

Mason, D.S. (1999). What is the sports product and who buys it? The marketing of professional sports leagues. European Journal of Marketing, 33(3/4), p. 402-418.

Mirtrano, J.R. (1999). The “Sudden Death” of hockey in Hartford: Sports fans and franchise relocation. Sociology of Sport Journal, 16, p. 134-154.

Moutinho, L., Dionisio, P. & Leal, C. (2007). Surf tribal behaviour: A sports marketing application. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 25(7), p. 668-690.

Palfrey, J. and Gasser, U. (2008). Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives. Basic Books: USA.

Peppler, K. A. & Kafai, Y. (2007). What videogame making can teach us about literacy and learning: Alternative pathways into participatory culture. Paper presented at Digital Games Research Association, Tokyo.

Real, M. (2006). Sports online: The newest player in mediasport. In Raney, A.A. & Bryant, J. (Eds.), Handbook of Sports and Media (p. 171). Portland: Book News Inc.

Sanderson, J. (2009). Professional athletes‘ shrinking privacy boundaries: Fans, information and communication technologies, and athlete monitoring. International Journal of Sport Communication, 2(1), p. 240-256.

Santomier, J. (2002). Sports Business Entrepreneurship. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, 5(1), p. 5.

Serazio, M. (2008). Virtual Sports Consumption, Authentic Brotherhood: The Reality of Fantasy Football. In L.W. Hugenberg, P.M. Haridakis & A.C. Earnheardt (Eds.), Sports Mania: essays on fandom and the media in the 21st century (pp. 229-242). London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.

Shirky, C. (2010). Cognitive Surplus. New York: Penguin Press.

Schultz, B. & Sheffer, M.L. (2008). Left behind: Local television and the community of sport. Western Journal of Communication, 72(2), p. 180.

Toffler, A. (1990). Powershift: Knowledge, Wealth, and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century. USA: Bantam.

Waller, L., & Oakham, K. (2009). The Carey ‘King Hit’: Journalists and the coverage of domestic violence. Asia Pacific Media Educator, 19, p. 71-84.

Wann, D.L., Grieve, F.G., Zapalac, R.K. & Pease, D.G. (2008). Motivational profiles of sports fans of different sports. Sports Marketing Quarterly, 17(1), p. 6-19.

Watts, R.B. The Florida Gators Nation Online. (2008). In L.W. Hugenberg, P.M. Haridakis & A.C. Earnheardt (Eds.), Sports Mania: essays on fandom and the media in the 21st century (p. 229-242). London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.

Winfree, J. (2009). Fan substitution and market definition in professional sports leagues. Antitrust Bulletin, 54(4), p. 801-822.

Young, N. (2012). The Virtual Self: How Our Digital Lives Are Altering the World Around Us. Canada: McClelland & Stewart.

Zhang, Y. & Wildemuth, B.M. (2009). Qualitative analysis of content. In B. Wildemuth (Ed.), Applications of Social Research Methods to Questions in Information and Library. Retrieved October 18, 2011 from

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